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        高中英语动词种类和形式知识点归纳

        时间:2019-01-04 英语知识 我要投稿

          类 别

          意义

          例 句

          实义动词

          含有实在的意义,表示动作或状态,在句子中能独立作谓语。

          She has some bananas.

          They eat a lot of potatoes.

          连系动词

          本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须和表语一起构成谓语。

          His father is a teacher.

          Twins usually look the same.

          The teacher became very angry.

          助动词

          本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,用来表示否定、疑问、时态、语态或其它语法形式,助动词自身有人称、单复数和时态的变化。

          He doesn’t speak English.

          We are playing basketball.

          Do you have a brother?

          情态动词

          本身有一定的意义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示说话人的语气和情态。情态动词没有人称和单复数的变化,有些情态动词有过去式。

          You can keep the books for two weeks.

          May I smoke here?

          We must go now.

          重要注解:

          (1)关于实义动词:

          ①英语的实义动词又可分为及物动词和不及物动词两大类:

          后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的叫及物动词;本身意义完整,后面不需跟宾语的叫不及物动词。

          ②有些动词通常只作不及物动词。如:go,come,happen,lie,listen,rise,arrive等。

          有些动词通常用作及物动词。如:say,raise,lay,find,buy等。

          ③大多数动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。如:study,sing等。

          ④有些动词作及物动词与作不及物动词时的意义有所不同。如:know,wash等。

          ⑤有些动词常和介词、副词或其它词类一起构成固定词组,形成短语动词。如:listen,reply,wait,look.

          (2)关于连系动词:

          ①连系动词用来连接主语和表语,连系动词后面常为形容词。

          ②常见的连系动词有:be、become、look、feel、sound、smell、taste、seem、turn、grow、get、go、fall、sit、stand、lie等。

          ③有些连系动词来源于实义动词,意思也跟着变化:look(看→看起来)、feel(感觉、摸→感到)、smell(闻、嗅→闻起来)、taste(尝→尝起来)、turn(翻转、转动→变得)、grow(生长→变得)、get(得到、到达→变得)、go(去→变得),所不同的是,作为实义动词时,后面不能跟形容词。

          (3)关于助动词:

          ①常见的助动词有:

          用于进行时和被动语态的be(am,is,are,was,were,been,being);

          用于完成时的have(has,had,having);

          用于将来时的shall(should);will(would)

          用于一般时的do(does,did).

          ②助动词必须同主语的人称和数一致,也就是说因主语人称、数的不同而采用不同的形式,其中有些助动词也可作情态动词。如:shall,will,should,would.

          2、动词词形变化一览表:

          (1)规则动词变化表:

          规 则变 化

          原形动词结尾情况

          现在时单三人称

          现在分词/动名词

          过去式和过去分词

          一般情况

          +s

          +ing

          +ed

          s,x,ch,sh,o结尾

          +es

          +ing

          +ed

          辅音字母+y结尾

          y→i,+es

          +ing

          y→i,+ed

          重读闭音节一元一辅结尾

          +s

          双写辅音字母,+ing

          双写辅音字母,+ed

          不发音的e结尾

          +s

          去掉e,+ing

          +d

          ie结尾

          +s

          ie→y,+ing

          +d

          不规则变化

          have→has;be→is

          (无)

          (见不规则动词变化表)

          (2)不规则动词变化表:(原形→过去式→过去分词)

          be(am,is)

          was

          been

          lose

          lost

          lost

          be(are)

          were

          been

          make

          made

          made

          beat

          beat

          beaten

          may

          might

          become

          became

          become

          mean

          meant

          meant

          begin

          began

          begun

          meet

          met

          met

          blow

          blew

          blown

          mistake

          mistook

          mistaken

          break

          broke

          broken

          must

          must

          bring

          brought

          brought

          pay

          paid

          paid

          build

          built

          built

          put

          put

          put

          buy

          bought

          bought

          read

          read

          Read

          can

          could

          ride

          rode

          ridden

          catch

          caught

          caught

          ring

          rang

          rung

          choose

          chose

          chosen

          rise

          rose

          risen

          come

          came

          come

          run

          ran

          run

          cost

          cost

          cost

          say

          said

          said

          cut

          cut

          cut

          see

          saw

          seen

          dig

          dug

          dug

          sell

          sold

          sold

          do

          did

          done

          send

          sent

          sent

          draw

          drew

          drawn

          set

          set

          set

          drink

          drank

          drunk

          shall

          should

          drive

          drove

          driven

          shine

          shone

          shone

          eat

          ate

          eaten

          show

          showed

          shown

          fall

          fell

          fallen

          shut

          shut

          shut

          feel

          felt

          felt

          sing

          sang

          sung

          find

          found

          found

          sink

          sank/sunk

          sunk/sunken

          fly

          flew

          flown

          sit

          set

          set

          forget

          forgot

          forgot/forgotten

          sleep

          slept

          slept

          freeze

          froze

          frozen

          smell

          smelt

          smelt

          get

          got

          got

          speak

          spoke

          spoken

          give

          gave

          given

          spend

          spent

          spent

          go

          went

          gone

          spill

          spilt

          spilt

          grow

          grew

          grown

          spoil

          spoilt

          spoilt

          hang

          hung/hanged

          hung/hanged

          stand

          stood

          stood

          have(has)

          had

          had

          sweep

          swept

          swept

          hear

          heard

          heard

          swim

          swam

          swum

          hide

          hid

          hidden

          take

          took

          taken

          hit

          hit

          hit

          teach

          taught

          taught

          hold

          held

          held

          tell

          told

          told

          hurt

          hurt

          hurt

          think

          thought

          thought

          keep

          kept

          kept

          throw

          threw

          thrown

          know

          knew

          known

          understand

          understood

          understood

          lay

          laid

          laid

          wake

          woke/waked

          woken/waked

          learn

          learnt/learned

          learnt/learned

          wear

          wore

          worn

          leave

          left

          left

          will

          would

          lend

          lent

          lent

          win

          won

          won

          let

          let

          let

          write

          wrote

          witten

          lie

          lay

          lain

          3、be(“是/存在”)动词的各种时态变化:

          一 般 现 在 时

          一 般 将 来 时

          现 在 完 成 时

          I am….

          You are.…

          He/She/It is….

          We/You/They are….

          (I等各人称) will be….

          I am

          He/She/It is going to be…

          We/You/They are

          I have been….

          You have been….

          She/he/It has been….

          We/You/They have been….

          一 般 过 去 时

          过 去 将 来 时

          过 去 完 成 时

          I was….

          You were.…

          He/She/It was….

          We/You/They were….

          (I等各人称) would be….

          I was

          He/She/It was going to be…

          We/You/They were

          I had been….

          You had been….

          She/he/It had been….

          We/You/They had been….

          注意:句型变化时,

          否定句在am/is/are/will/have/has/was/were/had/would后面加not,而且not都可以缩写为n’t(am后面not不可以缩写);

          疑问句将am/is/are/will/have/has/was/were/had/would提前到句首。

          4、其它谓语动词(主动语态)的时态变化一览表:

          现在 时态

          一 般 现 在 时

          现 在 进 行 时

          一 般 将 来 时

          现 在 完 成 时

          谓语动词构成

          动词用原形(单三加s / es)

          (问句和否定句借用助词do / does)

          am

          is +动词-ing

          are

          will + 动词原形

          am

          is +going to+动词原形

          are

          have +过去分词

          has

          过去 时态

          一 般 过 去 时

          过 去 进 行 时

          过 去 将 来 时

          过 去 完 成 时

          谓语动词构成

          动词用过去式

          (问句和否定句借用助词did)

          was

          +动词-ing

          were

          would + 动词原形

          was

          +going to+动词原形

          were

          注:动词的非谓语形式及用法见非谓语动词专项讲解。

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